Coronavirus (COVID-19): General advice
Coronavirus (COVID-19) is the illness caused by a strain of coronavirus first identified in Wuhan city, China. It can cause a new continuous cough, fever or loss of, or change in, sense of smell or taste (anosmia).
Generally, coronavirus can cause more severe symptoms in people with weakened immune systems, older people and those with long term conditions like diabetes, cancer and chronic lung disease.
This is a rapidly changing situation which is being monitored carefully.
Higher risk of severe illness
Some people are at higher risk of developing severe illness with coronavirus. These people should strictly follow protective measures.
Their household and other contacts should also strictly follow protective measures.
This group includes people who are:
- aged 70 or older (regardless of medical conditions)
- under 70 and instructed to get a flu jab as an adult each year on medical grounds
And those with:
- chronic (long-term) respiratory diseases, such as asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), emphysema or bronchitis
- chronic heart disease, such as heart failure
- chronic kidney disease
- chronic liver disease, such as hepatitis
- chronic neurological conditions, such as Parkinson's disease, motor neurone disease, multiple sclerosis (MS), a learning disability or cerebral palsy
- problems with their spleen, for example sickle cell disease
- a weakened immune system as the result of conditions such as HIV and AIDS, or medicines such as steroid tablets or chemotherapy
- a BMI of 40 or above who are seriously overweight
Extremely high risk of severe illness
Some groups of people are considered to be at extremely high risk of severe illness with coronavirus. These people should strictly follow protective measures and hygiene measures.
Their household and other contacts should strictly follow protective measures and hygiene measures to protect them.
Extremely high-risk group
This group includes people with:
- cancer and are receiving active chemotherapy
- lung cancer and are either receiving or previously received radical radiotherapy
- cancers of the blood or bone marrow, such as leukaemia, lymphoma or myeloma who are at any stage of treatment
- severe chest conditions such as cystic fibrosis, severe asthma, severe COPD, severe bronchiectasis and pulmonary hypertension
- rare diseases, including all forms of interstitial lung disease/sarcoidosis, and inborn errors of metabolism (such as SCID and homozygous sickle cell) that significantly increase the risk of infections
- an absent spleen or have had their spleen removed
- significant heart disease (congenital or acquired) and are pregnant
- Down’s syndrome (adults)
- stage 5 kidney disease
- liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh class B and C)
And those that have had:
- solid organ transplants
- bone marrow or stem cell transplants in the last 6 months, or who are still taking immunosuppression drugs
- immunotherapy or other continuing antibody treatments for cancer
- other targeted cancer treatments which can affect the immune system, such as protein kinase inhibitors or PARP inhibitors
- immunosuppression therapies that significantly increase the risk of infection
- renal dialysis treatment
Symptoms of coronavirus
The most common symptoms are new:
- continuous cough
- fever/high temperature (37.8C or greater)
- loss of, or change in, sense of smell or taste (anosmia)
A new continuous cough is where you:
- have a new cough that’s lasted for an hour
- have had 3 or more episodes of coughing in 24 hours
- are coughing more than usual
A high temperature is feeling hot to the touch on your chest or back (you don’t need to measure your temperature). You may feel warm, cold or shivery.
Some people will have more serious symptoms, including pneumonia or difficulty breathing, which might require admission to hospital.
Could I have coronavirus?
Use this guide to find out what to do next if you have developed any of these symptoms and are worried about coronavirus.
If you have coronavirus symptoms
If you’ve developed symptoms (however mild), stay at home for 10 days from the start of your symptoms and book a test. Do not go to your GP, pharmacy or hospital.
You should stay at home until you get the result of the test, and then follow the advice you will be given based on the result.
Urgent advice: Only phone 111 if:
- your symptoms worsen during self-isolation, especially if you’re in a high or extremely high-risk group
- breathlessness develops or worsens, particularly if you’re in a high or extremely high-risk group
- you have symptoms that you can no longer manage at home
If you have a medical emergency, phone 999 and tell them you have coronavirus symptoms.
Fever following a vaccination
If a child or adult develops fever following a vaccination, this would normally be within the first 48 hours after the time of vaccination and should usually go away within 48 hours from the start of your symptoms. It is quite common to have a fever after a vaccination.
You should only self-isolate or book a test during this time if you also either:
- have other coronavirus symptoms (a new continuous cough or a loss of, or change in, sense of smell or taste)
- have been told by NHS Test and Protect that you are a close contact of someone who has tested positive for coronavirus
- live with someone who has recently tested positive for coronavirus
- live with someone who has symptoms of coronavirus
If the fever starts beyond 48 hours from the time of vaccination, or persists beyond 48 hours, you should self-isolate and book a coronavirus test. Your household should follow the guidance for individuals with possible coronavirus infection.
Read further information about:
- the vaccines used to protect against coronavirus
- side effects of the coronavirus vaccines
- any other vaccines
How soon after contact with the virus do people become unwell?
The precise incubation period of coronavirus is not yet known. Experience so far suggests the average time it takes for symptoms to develop is 4 to 6 days after exposure, but it may be as short as 1 day or much longer.
Get an isolation note to give to your employer
You can send an isolation note to your employer as proof you need to stay off work because of coronavirus.
You don’t need to get a note from a GP.
Is there anything I can do to prepare?
You should start planning now for how you would manage a period of self-isolation just in case everyone in your household needs to stay at home.
Testing for coronavirus
Testing is available to people with and without symptoms. It can be carried out at home, or at one of the many coronavirus testing centres across Scotland.
If you test positive for the virus your close contacts will be traced.
Overseas visitors, asylum seekers and refugees
People who have come to Scotland to work, study or claim asylum (including refugees) will not pay for any coronavirus tests or treatments they need.
More about the coronavirus arrangements for overseas visitors
How the virus spreads
People can become infected when droplets land directly on them or they touch contaminated objects and surfaces. That is why good respiratory hygiene and hand washing are so important.
The virus might also spread by people 2 days before developing symptoms or by those who don’t develop significant symptoms at all.
How to avoid catching coronavirus
You can reduce your risk of getting and spreading the infection by:
- avoiding direct hand contact with your eyes, nose and mouth
- maintaining good hand hygiene
- avoiding direct contact with people that have a respiratory illness and avoiding using their personal items such as their mobile phone
- covering your nose and mouth when coughing or sneezing with disposable tissues and disposing of them in the nearest waste bin after use
- following the guidance for individuals with possible coronavirus infection and arranging to be tested if you have symptoms
- following the Scottish Government’s coronavirus advice
- making sure your household follows the protective measures, especially anyone in a vulnerable group
You can't catch coronavirus from food. But it is possible to catch it if you touch an infected surface or object and then touch your mouth or nose.
Food Standards Scotland have answered some common questions about coronavirus and food.
Wash your hands regularly
Wash your hands with soap and water or alcohol hand sanitiser before eating and drinking, and after coughing, sneezing and going to the toilet.
Anyone with symptoms of coronavirus should:
- use their own towels and bed linen
- wash these separately from other people living in the household
Don’t shake dirty laundry as this can spread the virus through the air.
Items that may have been contaminated with the virus aren’t considered to be infectious after 3 days. This includes any personal items or clothing used by someone who has had symptoms.
After 3 days you can:
- place rubbish bags containing personal waste, such as tissues used by someone with symptoms, in the normal waste
- take laundry used by someone who is ill to a launderette
Regular household cleaning is important to remove the virus from surfaces and household items quickly.
Longer-term effects of coronavirus
While most people recover quickly from coronavirus, some people may have ongoing symptoms. These can last a few weeks or longer. This has been referred to as long COVID.
These symptoms are not limited to people who were seriously unwell or hospitalised with coronavirus.
Read further information about the longer-term effects of coronavirus (long COVID)
We have set up a free helpline (0800 028 2816) to help with any questions you have about coronavirus that you can’t answer online.
The helpline is open from 8.00am to 8.00pm each day.